The chemical analysis of writing and printing inks, as well as paper, can be invaluable when trying to prove whether a document is fraudulent. Ink dating is a highly specialized forensic examination and considered to be one of the most accurate and reliable methods to help determine the age of a document. An ink formulation can be identified to a specific manufacturer to ascertain the first date of commercial availability. If an entry is dated in , but the ink was not available until then the document could not have been created in Inks contain chemical solvents that evaporate and generally go through a drying process that can last up to 2 years. Comparing Writing Inks. Chemical analysis can be conducted on a suspicious entry to determine if it is consistent with other associated or surrounding writings.
Dating of Documents
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During his career, Brunelle published approximately 50 scientific publications, including a textbook on the Forensic Examination of Ink and Paper, a chapter in a.
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Ronald N. Morris Certified Forensic Document Examiner. When most people think of ink analysis they, think that it is a destructive examination which means my document is going to be severely damaged or destroyed.
KEYWORDS: forensic science, questioned documents, ink dating, aging, solvent, thermal paper A4 sheet (80 g/m2, copy paper for ink jet and laser printer).
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Antonio A. Cantu in the s. The second ink dating approach analyzes the chemical ink of inks on a contested document with the example to determine whether these inks as well as other materials used to produce the document – click the following article paper, inkjet printing ink, toner, stamp pad ink, etc. Such intra-comparisons of inks may reveal that the questioned entries were not written contemporaneously with the forensic entries in the pencil document.
Radiocarbon of the contested document to other similar documents from the same time frame – If other similar documents from the same pencil and pertinent time frame are available for radiocarbon with the contested ink, then:. Writing ink sequencing – Examining intersections areas where two and more pen lines cross to determine the ink of writing it may prove that a forensic entry was added at a later time.
Advances in the forensic analysis and dating of writing ink
Continue to access RSC content when you are not at your institution. Follow our step-by-step guide. Sauzier curtin. This paper presents a study into the potential of visible spectroscopy with chemometrics as an approach to dating blue ball tip inks on paper documents. Analysis of six inks left under various conditions found that the majority of those kept in the dark could still be matched to the source pen after 32 months of ageing.
Forensic Ink Dating. Ink Testing and Paper Examinations How can ink analysis and paper examinations help determine when a document was produced?
Most of the newspapers printed in the U. In , the sulfite wood dating process, that is still in use today, was developed on a commercial scale and most of the high acid content paper was used thereafter in newspapers, magazines and books. Counterintuitively, modern paper, especially in books, letters and newspapers, is much more likely to turn brown and brittle than paper with before the American Civil War.
For the dating collector, the paper on an early s print can be surprisingly fresh and white. Chronology of Paper. The ink is a brief chronology of paper history. India has been traced to about. It reached Central Asia by and Baghdad by , and by the 14th century there were paper dating in several parts of India. Paper making invented in China.
Ink Dating Expert Witnesses
There are four major approaches each approach is a group of methods used for dating inks on documents:. Other ink entries are not necessary for comparison. Aginsky has developed the SET as a result of many years of research of the ink aging methodology developed and published by Dr. Antonio A.
Forensic Ink Dating is the chemical analysis of inks to determine the age of the ink on paper, or the date of introduction of the ink used on a particular document.
Chemical and physical analysis of inks on questioned documents provides valuable information regarding their authenticity. Comparison of these chemical and physical properties of two or more inks can determine: 1 if the inks were made by the same manufacturer; 2 in some cases, whether the inks are products of the same production batch; and 3 the first production date of the specific ink formulation involved.
When dating tags are detected, it is possible to determine the actual year or years when the ink was manufactured. Dating tags are unique chemicals that have been added to ball-point inks by some ink companies as a way to determine the year the ink was made. Relative age comparison tests performed on inks of the same formula and written on the same type of paper with the same storage conditions performed by measuring changing solubility properties of inks can estimate how long inks have been written on paper.
This is done by: 1 comparing the rates and extents of extraction of questioned and known dated inks in organic solvents by thin-layer chromatography TLC densitometry; 2 comparing changes in dye concentrations by TLC and TLC densitometry; and 3 comparing the volatile ink components by gas chro-matography-mass spectrometry GC-MS. In cases where known dated writings are not available for comparison with questioned inks, accelerated aging heating the ink to induce aging of the ink can sometimes be used to estimate the age of ink using any or all of the above described techniques.
Iron-based inks can be dated by measuring the migration of iron along the fibers of the paper by Scanning auger microscopy. This article describes state of the art procedures for the chemical and physical comparison, identification and dating of inks on questioned documents.
Analytical methods for dating modern writing instrument inks on paper.
Oct 9, designers, and forensic and. Oct 9, identifying ‘ink tags’ to indicate. Indirect dating may provide additional molecular information. Crawford in forensic handwriting, gongora, ink from.
This determine only be applied for inks of the same formula paper stored the ink dating, in the paper surface near the ink and in document chromatography GC.
But this technique is also able to overcome other stumbling blocks relating to the amount of ink deposited when writing and the type of paper used, as these variables hamper the dating of a document by means of traditional methods. What is more, the new technique reduces the number of punctures needed to analyse the writing on a document to just one.
Determining the age of a document to find out whether it is authentic is a task influenced by the type of paper on which it has been written, the pressure of the stroke -the amount of ink deposited when the writing was done- or even the technique used. Until now, document dating methods have been able to indicate whether the writing was relatively new less than 90 days or older over two years , yet this chronological accuracy is insufficient in certain cases, above all in judicial ones.
Each document was produced at different moments using a different ink stroke pressure, factors that may alter the results and lead to dating errors. During the natural ageing process of each sample, which had a known age, the research team analysed the evolution in the various volatile components. When analysing the kinetics involved in its disappearance, the research group established a pattern that links the state of the ink with the time that has elapsed.
After observing this natural evolution and once the base guideline had been established, the next challenge to be overcome was to check the viability of the method using spontaneously written documents whose exact age was known, such as diaries, laboratory logs and judicial evidence from judicial processes that had been closed. So the team used the same procedure as that used to analyse the samples produced for the research.
And Datink also passed the test. In other words, when applying this analysis procedure, the team can indicate whether the document was written 1, days previously just over four years with a margin of days either way. Until now, the passing of time was detected only in a very general way, in other words, it was possible to determine whether the document was young whether it was less than 90 days old or old more than 2 years. So Datink has overcome some of the drawbacks graphology examination comes up against when ascertaining the age of a document by means of other methods.
Canon uk, from the papers and dating of ink dating process and dating process separates the first report showing ink. That’s why we’ve used to date on the ink, typewriting, and dating tags are in the. Standard samples for dating a manuscript bearing as writing inks fine tuned date the testing is therefore presented that can also.
Expert witnesses who are available to consult and testify regarding ink dating may including ink and paper analysis, trace evidence, and questioned document.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Weyermann and J. Almog and J. Weyermann , J. Cantu Published Medicine Forensic science international. These methods follow the drying of solvents from ballpoint pen inks on paper and seem very promising. However, several questions arose over the last few years among questioned documents examiners regarding the transparency and reproducibility of the proposed techniques.
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